Punitive Articles of the UCMJ

Article 111 UCMJ; Drunken or reckless operation of vehicle, plane, or vessel

fighter pilot

Note: The requirements of this offense had been modified by using President George Bush, by Executive Order 12473, on October 14, 2005. Specifically, the blood-alcohol limits have been modified from 0.10 to the tiers proven in subsection b, beneath.


“Any individual difficulty to this chapter who:

(1) operates or physically controls any vehicle, plane, or vessel in a reckless or wanton way or at the same time as impaired by way of a substance defined in section 912a(b) of this title (Article 112a(b)), or

(2) operates or is in real bodily manage of any vehicle, plane, or vessel even as drunk or whilst the alcohol awareness within the character's blood or breath is equal to or exceeds the extent prohibited below subsection (b), as proven with the aid of chemical analysis, will be punished as a court docket-martial may also direct.

Subsection b

(1) For functions of subsection (a), the applicable level of the alcohol awareness in a person's blood or breath is as follows:

(A) In the case of the operation or control of a car, aircraft, or vessel inside the United States, the extent is the blood alcohol awareness prohibited underneath the regulation of the State in which the conduct occurred, except as can be provided beneath paragraph (b)(2) for behavior on a navy installation this is in more than one State, or the prohibited alcohol concentration degree specified in paragraph (b)(three).

(B) In the case of the operation or manipulate of a car, plane, or vessel outdoor the US, the level is the blood alcohol attention specified in paragraph (b)(three) or such decrease level as the Secretary of Defense may also through regulation prescribe.

(2) In the case of a military installation this is in a couple of State, if those States have one of a kind levels for defining their prohibited blood alcohol concentrations beneath their respective State laws, the Secretary worried for the set up may additionally select one such level to use uniformly on that set up.

(three) For purposes of paragraph (b)(1), the level of alcohol attention prohibited in a person's blood is zero.10 grams or more of alcohol in step with 100 milliliters of blood and with appreciate to alcohol attention in someone's breath is 0.10 grams or greater of alcohol according to 210 liters of breath, as proven by chemical evaluation.

(4) In this subsection, the term "United States" consists of the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa, and the time period "State" consists of every of these jurisdictions.


(1) That the accused changed into operating or in physical control of a automobile, plane, or vessel; and

(2) That at the same time as running or in physical control of a vehicle, aircraft, or vessel, the accused:

(a) did so in a wanton or reckless manner, or

(b) turned into inebriated or impaired, or

(c) the alcohol attention degree within the accused's blood or breath, as proven through chemical evaluation, changed into same to or handed the applicable stage furnished in subsection b above.

(3) That the accused thereby precipitated the vehicle, plane, or vessel to injure someone.


(1) Vehicle: See - 1 U.S.C. § four.

(2) Vessel: See- 1 U.S.C. § 3.

(3) Aircraft: Any contrivance used or designed for transportation inside the air.

(4) Operates: Operating a vehicle, aircraft, or vessel includes not simplest riding or guiding a vehicle, plane or vessel while it is in motion, either in person or through the corporation of every other, but additionally placing off its cause power in action or the manipulation of its controls for you to motive the unique vehicle, aircraft or vessel to move.

(5) Physical manage and actual physical manipulate: These phrases as used within the statute are synonymous. They describe the prevailing functionality and energy to dominate, direct, or alter the car, vessel, or plane, both in character or thru the enterprise of another, irrespective of whether such vehicle, plane, or vessel is operated. For instance, the intoxicated man or woman seated behind the steerage wheel of a car with the keys of the vehicle in or close to the ignition however with the engine no longer turned on may be deemed in real bodily manipulate of that car. However, the person asleep in the again seat with the keys in their pocket would now not be deemed in actual physical control. Physical manage always encompasses operation.

(6) Drunk or impaired: “Drunk” and “impaired” imply any intoxication which is sufficient to impair the rational and complete workout of the intellectual or bodily colleges. The time period drunk is used on the subject of intoxication by using alcohol. The term impaired is used in relation to intoxication by means of a substance defined in Article 112(a), Uniform Code of Military Justice.

(7) Reckless: The operation or physical manipulate of a vehicle, vessel, or plane is “reckless” whilst it famous a culpable brush aside of foreseeable outcomes to others from the act or omission involved. Recklessness isn't determined entirely by using purpose of the happening of an damage, or the invasion of the rights of every other, nor by way of evidence on my own of immoderate speed or erratic operation, however a lot of these elements may be admissible and applicable as bearing upon the last question: whether or not, underneath all the occasions, the accused’s way of operation or physical manage of the vehicle, vessel, or aircraft changed into of that heedless nature which made it truely or imminently risky to the occupants, or to the rights or safety of others. It is operating or bodily controlling a car, vessel, or plane with this type of high degree of negligence that if loss of life were precipitated, the accused might have committed involuntary manslaughter, at the least. The nature of the situations wherein the automobile, vessel, or aircraft is operated or controlled, the time of day or night time, the proximity and wide variety of other motors, vessels, or aircraft and the circumstance of the car, vessel, or aircraft, are regularly topics of significance within the evidence of an offense charged under this newsletter and, where they are of significance, may additionally well be alleged.

(eight) Wanton: “Wanton” consists of “reckless,” but in describing the operation or physical control of a car, vessel, or plane, “wanton” might also, in a proper case, connote willfulness, or a brush aside of probable outcomes, and accordingly describe a more aggravated offense.

(9) Causation: The accused’s drunken or reckless driving have to be a proximate reason of harm for the accused to be guilty of drunken or reckless riding ensuing in non-public damage. To be proximate, the accused’s actions need not be the sole reason of the harm, nor must they be the instant motive of the damage, this is, the modern in time and space previous the harm. A contributing cause is deemed proximate only if it plays a cloth function within the sufferer’s harm.

(10) Separate offenses: While the identical direction of conduct may additionally constitute violations of each subsections (1) and (2) of the Article, e.g., both drunken and reckless operation or bodily control, this article proscribes the behavior described in each subsections as separate offenses, which can be charged one after the other. However, as recklessness is a relative be counted, proof of all the surrounding instances that made the operation risky, whether alleged or no longer, may be admissible. Thus, on a price of reckless using, for instance, evidence of drunkenness is probably admissible as establishing one thing of the recklessness, and proof that the car handed a secure speed, at a relevant previous point and time, is probably admissible as corroborating other proof of the specific recklessness charged. Similarly, on a rate of drunken using, relevant evidence of recklessness would possibly have probative fee as corroborating other proof of drunkenness.

Lesser included offense

(1) Reckless or wanton or impaired operation or physical control of a vessel. Article a hundred and ten—unsuitable hazarding of a vessel.

(2) Drunken operation of a car, vessel, or plane at the same time as drunk or with a blood or breath alcohol attention in violation of the described in step with se fashionable.

(a) Article 110—incorrect hazarding of a vessel

(b) Article 112—under the influence of alcohol on obligation

(c) Article 134—under the influence of alcohol on station

Maximum punishment

(1) Resulting in personal injury: Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 18 months.

(2) No private injury involved: Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months.

Source: Manual for Court Martial, 2002, Chapter 4, Paragraph 35