Women and Work: Then, Now, and Predicting the Future

Business Women in the Workplace


Tired of studying approximately Sheryl Sandberg, Facebook's Chief Operating Officer and author of the ebook, "Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead"? Sandberg and other a success ladies consisting of Marillyn Hewson, CEO of Lockheed Martin, Susan Wojcicki, CEO of YouTube, Abigail Johnson, CEO of Fidelity Investments or Mary Barra, CEO of GM are the poster face for the 'You've come a long way, toddler' spin doctors.

You can applaud and laud the paintings fulfillment of those businesswomen and hope all people study from their know-how and achievements. Indeed, a number of those women are private heroes to many others who are striving for commercial enterprise achievement. Rock on!

However, what is taking place to the relaxation of the women in the body of workers? More importantly, what does the destiny maintain for businesswomen in the place of work?

Do you want to know what ladies have done now and what the future holds for girls and work? Let's polish up the crystal ball and make a few predictions primarily based on present day facts and projections about women and work. You'll test the then and now statistics and speak the destiny of ladies and work.

Objectives and ideas to assist employers keep to accomplish this progress for ladies inside the place of job also are encouraged. Read on to examine greater approximately this big and vital subject matter.

What Percentage of Women Work?


"In 1950 approximately one in three girls participated inside the hard work force. By 1998, nearly three of each 5 girls of running age were in the hard work force. Among women age sixteen and over, the exertions pressure participation price was 33.9 percent in 1950, in comparison with 59.eight percentage in 1998.

sixty three.three percent of girls age 16 to 24 worked in 1998 as opposed to forty three.nine percent in 1950.

seventy six.three percentage of ladies age 25 to 34 worked in 1998 versus 34.zero percent in 1950.

77.1 percentage of girls age 35 to forty four worked in 1998 as opposed to 39.1 percent in 1950.

76.2 percent of ladies age forty five to 54 worked in 1998 versus 37.9 percent in 1950.

fifty one.2 percent of girls age 55 to 64 worked in 1998 versus 27 percent in 1950.

eight.6 percent of ladies age sixty five+ labored in 1998 versus nine.7 percent in 1950.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor: Changes in Women's Work Participation


"As more girls are delivered to the labor pressure, their proportion will method that of guys. In 2008, women will make up about 48 percent of the hard work force and men fifty two percentage. In 1988, the respective stocks have been 45 and fifty five percentage."

Source: U.S. Department of Labor: Women's Share of Labor Force

Women and Absenteeism


As you might assume due to domestic and circle of relatives matters, "in 1998, approximately four percentage of full-time workers have been absent from their task throughout an average workweek—meaning they worked less than 35 hours at some point of the week because of injury, infection, or plenty of different motives. About five.1 percent of girls (inclusive of five.6 percent of women aged 20 to 24) have been absent in the common week, compared with 2.7 percentage of guys Among the ones absent, ladies have been truly much more likely to be absent for motives apart from injury or contamination. One-1/3 of girls’s compared with less than one-region of fellows’s absences had been attributed to different motives."

Source: U.S. Department of Labor: Women's Absenteeism


The variety of ladies will hold to boom inside the team of workers. Women will keep to have number one obligation for home and own family matters, as a consequence affecting paintings attendance negatively.

What Employers Can Do:

Employers may be challenged to offer family-pleasant solutions for operating individuals who want flexibility for child care and eldercare. These solutions may include:

Attendance structures which might be rigid will force certified and committed personnel to employers that cope with circle of relatives issues with creativity and challenge.

Employers need to pay greater interest to the Equal Employment Opportunity hints. They exist to create fairness and too many employers are still operating them as a numbers game due to reporting requirements.

As endorsed by using the Women Employed Institute, make girls extra aware about careers that provide better pay opportunities. Most girls's jobs are clustered in "lady" occupations that pay poorly. Promote and educate women about these opportunities so women pursue possibilities for training in these better-paying opportunities.

Catalyst, which video display units the development of girls inside the place of work, reported that as of 1998, best 2.7 percentage of the highest-paid officials at Fortune 500 groups have been girls. Women hold to dominate decrease-paying home, clerical support, and administrative-kind occupations.

Next, you may test how ladies have stepped forward in profits and schooling and consider employers' opportunities to escalate the progress.

Interested in Women's Earnings and Education?

"The median weekly income of women age 35-forty four as a percentage of fellows’s accelerated from fifty eight.3 percent to 73.zero percentage from 1979 to 1993, a upward thrust of 14.7 percent factors.

There additionally become an boom within the lady-to-male income ratio amongst those elderly forty five to fifty four from 1979 to 1993."

Source: U.S. Department of Labor: Women's Earnings

"In 1998, girls in managerial and expert occupations earned tons more in line with week than women in different occupations. Their median weekly earnings had been fifty six percent extra than those of technical, income, and administrative assist employees, the subsequent-maximum class."

Source: U.S. Department of Labor: Women in Managerial, Professional Occupations Earn More

"A look at women’s profits during the last twenty years indicates a blended photograph of progress. Women’s inflation-adjusted profits have expanded by using almost 14 percentage considering the fact that 1979, while guys’s have declined by about 7 percent. But whilst ladies’s earnings have stepped forward relative to men’s, full-time operating girls discovered themselves making most effective about 76 percent of what men earned in 1998. Earnings for ladies with college ranges shot up nearly 22 percentage during the last decades but, for girls without submit-secondary education, there was little development."

Source: Monthly Labor Review Online, "Women's Earnings," (December 1999).

"Women hired full time in professional strong point occupations earned $682 in 1998, greater than women hired in some other foremost occupational class. Within this career institution, women working as physicians, pharmacists and attorneys had the best median profits.

"Women's share of employment in occupations typified by excessive earnings has grown. In 1998, forty six.4 percentage of full-time wage and profits employees in govt, administrative, and managerial occupations were ladies, up from 34.2 percent in 1983, the first 12 months for which comparable statistics are available. Over the same time period, girls as a proportion of expert uniqueness employees rose from 46.eight percentage to 51.6 percent.

"In comparison, there has been surprisingly little trade in ladies's proportion of full-time wage and earnings employment inside the last occupational businesses. In 1983, women held 77.7 percent of administrative guide occupations; in 1998, they still held 76.three percent of these jobs." Women represented 7.9 percent of precision manufacturing, craft, and restore workers, in 1983 and in 1998.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor: Highlights of Women's Earnings


"Among 1998 high faculty graduates, greater women than guys enrolled in university. As of October, 938,000 young girls who graduated from excessive faculty in 1998 have been in university even as 906,000 young men were enrolled." The trend of more ladies attending college continues.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor: Women's Education


Pay to girls will keep to lag the pay guys earn in similar careers, even if the female has extra schooling. The fashion of greater ladies attending university will keep, although I'll study the majors they're pursuing later in this feature. Chosen research are affecting each their pay and their employability capability.

What Employers Can Do:

Employers, most significantly, need to be knowledgable approximately the pay gap that also exists between women and men doing similar work. Managers, in any respect tiers, who manage salaries and budgets, need to make a dedication to paying human beings, irrespective of gender, the equal sum of money for similar paintings.

Women want to stay in contact with their personal place of work. If a female is aware of she is making less cash than a person, and all other troubles appear like identical, she owes it to herself to take the case to her boss and to Human Resources. She can help to create a greater gender-pleasant place of work and promote her own really worth.

Employers want to pay more interest to the Equal Employment Opportunity recommendations. They exist to create equity and too many employers are still running them as if they're a numbers recreation due to monitoring and reporting requirements. I'd be so happy to peer a authentic commitment to paying human beings equitably based on contribution.

As endorsed via the Women Employed Institute, make girls greater privy to careers that offer better pay possibilities. Most ladies's jobs are clustered in "female" occupations that pay poorly. Promote and train women approximately those opportunities so ladies pursue possibilities for schooling in those better-paying possibilities.

Catalyst, which monitors the progress of girls inside the place of job, stated that as of 1998, simplest 2.7 percentage of the best-paid officers at Fortune 500 corporations were ladies. Women maintain to dominate decrease-paying home, clerical aid, and administrative-kind occupations.

Next, allow's test modern numbers of girls in technological know-how and technology careers, expected to offer exceptional opportunities within the next decades. Then, we'll keep in mind what employers can do to inspire the participation of ladies in those careers.

Interested in Women in Science and Technology?

"According to the 2001 Current Population Survey (CPS) statistics, one out of ten hired engineers turned into a woman, at the same time as two of ten hired engineering technologists and technicians have been ladies. Among engineering specialties, business, chemical, and metallurgical/materials engineers were the handiest occupations wherein women were extra particularly represented than the overall percent of total ladies engineers.

Among herbal scientists, ladies represented 51.6 percentage of medical scientists and 44.4 percent of biological and lifestyles scientists however accounted for a smaller part of geologists and geodesists (24.0 percentage), physicists, and astronomers (7.7 percentage).

"Employment of women has lagged in maximum of the excessive-tech occupations that display promise for future growth. Software and hardware carriers have received acceptance as mechanisms for getting ready excessive-era employees for employment possibilities in the subject. The challenges for women are to find more pathways into excessive-tech occupations, and into possibilities within the new certification universe. They also want to go into high-tech occupations in greater numbers."

An increasing quantity of faculties are enrolling more girls than men in their medical faculties. "Women comprised just over 45 percentage of candidates and new college students at U.S. scientific faculties in 1999-2000. The percentage of girls medical citizens multiplied from 28 percent of all residents in 1989 to 38 percentage in 1999 consistent with the Association of American Medical Colleges. Women in US Academic Medicine Statistics 1999-2000."

Source: American Medical Women's Association

In the field of veterinary remedy, the progress of ladies is even similarly alongside. "Now maximum students at veterinary colleges are ladies, and with the aid of 2005, women will become the bulk in the career, says the American Veterinary Medical Association. While the variety of woman veterinarians inside the United States has extra than doubled due to the fact that 1991, to 24,356, the range of male veterinarians has fallen 15 percentage, to 33,461.”

Source: New York Times: Yilu Zhao (June nine, 2002)


Here's the venture. Traditionally, profession fields that became the purview of women have become marginalized in terms of pay, prospects, and standing. It's not the cause of this article to hint that history however instead to reflect onconsideration on careers that had been once male-dominated that are now overwhelmingly populated by means of ladies: clerical positions, administrative jobs, nursing, coaching, social paintings, and retail positions. Will veterinary medicinal drug and the medical field, specially family exercise, general, and internal medicine comply with the identical course?

The answer, lamentably, is 'sure.' When women dominate a area, the field becomes much less attractive and attractive as an profession.

Additionally, even as ladies are making progress, as a society, the statistics show the percentage of women getting into training for excessive era and tough science careers is declining in 2002. (See the "Wired News" article under, as an example.

What Employers Can Do:

This is a hard location in which to make suggestions for employers. So a great deal of an man or woman's set of pursuits and values is formulated early in lifestyles thru the home and peer surroundings and college stories and successes. While the sector is making development, as a society, women and boys are still raised, advised, and handled very in a different way. (This article, "Why Girls Don't Compute," from "Wired News," highlights some of the challenges.) There are, but, efforts employers could make.

Offer girls education and training opportunities to be able to prepare them for promoting to positions in technology and technological know-how.

Hire an same number of women into company-backed schooling and education programs with a purpose to put together them for a profession direction in better-paying, generation-related positions.

Expose ladies to technology and work with computers. Many have simply no longer had the opportunity and can have an unrealistic information of the abilties and understanding required to successfully function a computer.

Work together with your neighborhood elementary college, middle school, high faculty, network college, and college to ensure that programs and educational opportunities are in place that exposes girls to era, math, and science, in addition to supporting careers, early. Ensure that clubs, technological know-how task competitions, and all different possibilities, attain out equally to women.

In this work environment, given the challenges employers face in developing bendy paintings environments and promoting women in careers with high pay and high popularity, is it any surprise that ladies are starting their personal organizations in droves?

Interested in Women-Owned Business?


"Women-owned companies are privately held firms in which women personal fifty one percentage or extra of the firm. The U.S. Census Bureau's ultra-modern Survey of Women-Owned Business Enterprises (SWOBE) said that girls-owned five,417,034 U.S. non-farm corporations in 1997. Women-owned businesses made up 26.0 percentage of the nation's 20.8 million non-farm agencies, employed 7.1 million paid people, and generated $818.7 billion in income and receipts.

"For organizations owned by minority girls, Hispanic women-owned 337,708 companies; Black girls-owned 312,884 companies; Asian and Pacific Islander ladies-owned 247,966 companies; and American Indian and Alaska Native women-owned 53,593 corporations. White non-Hispanic ladies-owned 4,487,589 million firms.

"Over 1/2 (55 percent) of ladies-owned corporations have been inside the services industry in 1997. Within the offerings industry, ladies have been maximum possibly to operate firms in enterprise offerings (769,250 companies) and private services (634,225 companies). The combined sales and receipts for those two sectors totaled $78.three billion.

"Women-owned agencies had total sales and receipts of $818.7 billion in 1997. The four industries that produced the biggest overall sales for women-owned organizations in 1997 were wholesale change, services, retail trade, and production. Women-owned corporations operating in wholesale alternate--durable and non-long lasting goods--recorded receipts of $188.five billion.

"Those working in offerings--for instance, resorts and other accommodations places; personal offerings; business services; vehicle repair, offerings, and parking; miscellaneous repair services; movement images; amusement and activity offerings; fitness services; criminal services; and academic services--had sales of $186.2 billion. Women-owned companies in retail change had income of $152.0 billion and people in manufacturing had income of $113.7 billion.

"Nearly three-fourths (72 percent) of minority girls-owned firms operated within the offerings (531,532 firms) and retail alternate (133,924 corporations) industries. Firms owned by way of minority girls recorded general sales and receipts of $eighty four.7 billion in 1997. Those owned by means of Asian and Pacific Islander women earned $38.1 billion; Hispanic ladies, $27.3 billion; Black ladies, $thirteen.6 billion; and American Indian and Alaska Native ladies, $6.8 billion."

Source: U.S. Department of Labor: Women Business Owners


Employers may be unable to fulfill the power necessities of many women. Women-owned organizations will become the profession of choice for many girls. Women-owned company firms grew by using 37 percent from 1997 to 2002, four instances the boom price of all company corporations.

While the majority of companies started by using girls considering that 1997 are inside the carrier industry, there are a developing number of women beginning corporations in non-conventional industries such as production and finance. The Center for Women's Business Research affords an article based on unpublished census statistics and different authentic studies assets to offer those figures.

What Employers Can Do:

Employers can follow the recommendations made inside the first three elements of this article to stem the tide of gifted women beginning their personal businesses. But, the tidal wave has began and can be hard to forestall. Women are more and more in contact with the power, empowerment, and project inherent in proudly owning and operating a small business, massive business, or even a domestic-primarily based business or sole-proprietorship. Increasingly, employers will compete with this option for proficient female employees.

Resources for Women Considering Starting a Business:

The Center for Women's Business Research

The National Association of Women Business Owners